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The Persian language has been written with a number of different scripts, including the Old Persian Cuneiform, Pahlavi, Aramaic, and Avestan, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. After the Islamic conquest of the Persian Sassanid Empire in 642 AD, Arabic became the language of government, culture and especially religion.
Modern Persian (Farsi) appeared during the 9th century. It is written in a version of the Arabic script and is full of words of Arabic origin. There are also two methods of writing Persian with the Latin alphabet.
Under Mongolian and Turkish rulers, Persian was adopted as the language of government in Turkey, central Asia and India, where it was used for centuries, and until after 1900 in Kashmir.
Persian is a member of the Iranian branch of Indo-European languages spoken by about 130 million people, mainly in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. There are also significant numbers of speakers in many other countries, including Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey, Kuwait, Azerbaijan, Israel, Turkmenistan, Oman, Yemen, the UAE and the USA.
In Iran Farsi has constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri, Kurdish and Mazandarani, Gilaki, Lori and etc. There are tens of minor languages and dialects spoken around Iran.
In Afghanistan Persian is known as Dari or Dari-Persian, which is spoken almost everywhere and over 50% of Afghanistan's total population speak Farsi or Dari include Herat and the northern parts of Afghanistan where the majority of people speak Farsi.
In Tajikistan it's known as Tajiki (Тоҷики).
Persian, Farsi or Parsi?
The official language of Iran is sometimes called Farsi in English and other languages. This is a correct transliteration of the native name of the language, however many, including the ISO and the Academy of Persian Language and Literature, prefer the name Persian for the language. Some speakers use the older local name: Parsi.
Persian alphabet and pronunciation
- Type of writing system: abjad - includes letters only for consonants. Vowels, when indicated, are written with diacritics and/or combinations of consonant letters
- Direction of writing: right to left in horizontal lines; numerals written from left to right.
- Used to write: Persian
- Persian has seven vowel sounds: â (/ɒː/), a (/æ/), e (/e/), I (/iː/), o (/o/), u (/uː/), ow (/ou/)
- "Alef" has no particular sound. At the beginning of words by means of diacritics it can denote "â" (آ), "a" (اَ), "e" (اِ), "o" (اُ) but elsewhere, it always denotes "â". However, only the diacritic of "â" (آ) is commonly written and you just have to memorize the pronunciation. For example: آب (âb) – water, اسب (asb) – horse, امید (omid) – hope, امشب (emšab) - tonight.
“ Farsi ”