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UNESCO Wold Heritages in Iran

UNESCO Wold Heritages in Iran
UNESCO Wold Heritages in Iran
Only countries that have signed the World Heritage Convention, pledging to protect their natural and cultural heritage, can submit nomination proposals for properties on their territory to be considered for inclusion in UNESCO’s World Heritage List.
Properties inscribed on the Cultural World Heritage List (17)
Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran (2008)
Bam and its Cultural Landscape (2004)
Bisotun (2006)
Golestan Palace (2013)
Gonbad-e Qābus (2012)
Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan (2012)
MeidanEmam, Esfahan (1979)
Pasargadae (2004)
Persepolis (1979)
Shahr-i Sokhta (2014)
Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil (2010)
Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System (2009)
Soltaniyeh (2005)
Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex (2010)
Takht-e Soleyman (2003)
TchoghaZanbil (1979)
The Persian Garden (2011)
  Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran
The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran, in the north-west of the country, consists of three monastic ensembles of the Armenian Christian faith: St Thaddeus and St Stepanos and the Chapel of Dzordzor. These edifices - the oldest of which, St Thaddeus, dates back to the 7th century – are examples of outstanding universal value of the Armenian architectural and decorative traditions. They bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, in particular the Byzantine, Orthodox and Persian. Situated on the south-eastern fringe of the main zone of the Armenian cultural space, the monasteries constituted a major centre for the dissemination of that culture in the region. They are the last regional remains of this culture that are still in a satisfactory state of integrity and authenticity. Furthermore, as places of pilgrimage, the monastic ensembles are living witnesses of Armenian religious traditions through the centuries.
 Bam and its Cultural Landscape
Bam is situated in a desert environment on the southern edge of the Iranian high plateau. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC). Its heyday was from the 7th to 11th centuries, being at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton garments. The existence of life in the oasis was based on the underground irrigation canals, the qanāts, of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (Chineh).
 Bisotun
Bisotun is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanid, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, The Great, when he rose to the throne of the Persian Empire, 521 BC. The bas-relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of sovereignty, and treading on the chest of a figure who lies on his back before him. According to legend, the figure represents Gaumata, the Median Magus and pretender to the throne whose assassination led to Darius’s rise to power. Below and around the bas-reliefs, there are ca. 1,200 lines of inscriptions telling the story of the battles Darius waged in 521-520 BC against the governors who attempted to take apart the Empire founded by Cyrus. The inscription is written in three languages. The oldest is an Elamite text referring to legends describing the king and the rebellions. This is followed by a Babylonian version of similar legends. The last phase of the inscription is particularly important, as it is here that Darius introduced for the first time the Old Persian version of his res gestae (things done). This is the only known monumental text of the Achaemenids to document the re-establishment of the Empire by Darius I. It also bears witness to the interchange of influences in the development of monumental art and writing in the region of the Persian Empire. There are also remains from the Median period (8th to 7th centuries B.C.) as well as from the Achaemenid (6th to 4th centuries B.C.) and post-Achaemenid periods.
 Golestan Palace
The lavish Golestan Palace is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The walled Palace, one of the oldest groups of buildings in Teheran, became the seat of government of the Qajar family, which came into power in 1779 and made Teheran the capital of the country. Built around a garden featuring pools as well as planted areas, the Palace’s most characteristic features and rich ornaments date from the 19th century. It became a centre of Qajari arts and architecture of which it is an outstanding example and has remained a source of inspiration for Iranian artists and architects to this day. It represents a new style incorporating traditional Persian arts and crafts and elements of 18th century architecture and technology.
 Gonbad-e Qābus
The 53 m high tomb built in ad 1006 for Qābus Ibn Voshmgir, Ziyarid ruler and literati, near the ruins of the ancient city of Jorjan in north-east Iran, bears testimony to the cultural exchange between Central Asian nomads and the ancient civilization of Iran. The tower is the only remaining evidence of Jorjan, a former centre of arts and science that was destroyed during the Mongols’ invasion in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is an outstanding and technologically innovative example of Islamic architecture that influenced sacral building in Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia. Built of unglazed fired bricks, the monument’s intricate geometric forms constitute a tapering cylinder with a diameter of 17–15.5 m, topped by a conical brick roof. It illustrates the development of mathematics and science in the Muslim world at the turn of the first millennium AD.
 Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan
Located in the historic centre of Isfahan, the Masjed-e Jāmé (‘Friday mosque’) can be seen as a stunning illustration of the evolution of mosque architecture over twelve centuries, starting in ad 841. It is the oldest preserved edifice of its type in Iran and a prototype for later mosque designs throughout Central Asia. The complex, covering more than 20,000 m2, is also the first Islamic building that adapted the four-courtyard layout of Sassanid palaces to Islamic religious architecture. Its double-shelled ribbed domes represent an architectural innovation that inspired builders throughout the region. The site also features remarkable decorative details representative of stylistic developments over more than a thousand years of Islamic art.
 MeidanEmam, Esfahan
Built by Shah Abbas I the Great at the beginning of the 17th century, and bordered on all sides by monumental buildings linked by a series of two-storeyed arcades, the site is known for the Royal Mosque, the Mosque of SheykhLotfollah, the magnificent Portico of Qaysariyyeh and the 15th-century Timurid palace. They are an impressive testimony to the level of social and cultural life in Persia during the Safavid era.
 Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex
Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity and its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centres on the Silk Road. Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex consists of a series of interconnected, covered, brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for different functions. Tabriz and its Bazaar were already prosperous and famous in the 13th century, when the town, in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. The city lost its status as capital in the 16th century, but remained important as a commercial hub until the end of the 18th century, with the expansion of Ottoman power. It is one of the most complete examples of the traditional commercial and cultural system of Iran.
 Pasargadae
Pasargadae was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. Its palaces, gardens and the mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization. Particularly noteworthy vestiges in the 160-ha site include: the Mausoleum of Cyrus II; Tall-e Takht, a fortified terrace; and a royal ensemble of gatehouse, audience hall, residential palace and gardens. Pasargadae was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Spanning the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to the Hindus River, it is considered to be the first empire that respected the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.
 Persepolis
Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archaeological site.
 Shahr-iSokhta
Shahr-iSokhta, meaning ‘Burnt City’, is located at the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. The remains of the mudbrick city represent the emergence of the first complex societies in eastern Iran. Founded around 3200 BC, it was populated during four main periods up to 1800 BC, during which time there developed several distinct areas within the city: those where monuments were built, and separate quarters for housing, burial and manufacture. Diversions in water courses and climate change led to the eventual abandonment of the city in the early second millennium. The structures, burial grounds and large number of significant artefacts unearthed there, and their well-preserved state due to the dry desert climate, make this site a rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium BC.
Shahr-iSokhta
Shahr-iSokhta, meaning ‘Burnt City’, is located at the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. The remains of the mudbrick city represent the emergence of the first complex societies in eastern Iran. Founded around 3200 BC, it was populated during four main periods up to 1800 BC, during which time there developed several distinct areas within the city: those where monuments were built, and separate quarters for housing, burial and manufacture. Diversions in water courses and climate change led to the eventual abandonment of the city in the early second millennium. The structures, burial grounds and large number of significant artefacts unearthed there, and their well-preserved state due to the dry desert climate, make this site a rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium BC.
Sheikh Safi al-din Khaneghah and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil
Built between the beginning of the 16th century and the end of the 18th century, this place of spiritual retreat in the Sufi tradition uses Iranian traditional architectural forms to maximize use of available space to accommodate a variety of functions (including a library, a mosque, a school, mausoleum, a cistern, a hospital, kitchens, a bakery, and some offices). It incorporates a route to reach the shrine of the Sheikh divided into seven segments, which mirror the seven stages of Sufi mysticism, separated by eight gates, which represent the eight attitudes of Sufism. The ensemble includes well-preserved and richly ornamented facades and interiors, with a remarkable collection of antique artefacts. It constitutes a rare ensemble of elements of medieval Islamic architecture.
 Shushtar
Shushtar Historical Hydraulic Systems, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Karun one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Mianab (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salâsel Castel, the operation centre of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills. It bears witness to the know-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamians as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence.
 Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System
Shushtar, Historical Hydraulic System, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river Karun one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Mianab (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Salasel Castel, the operation centre of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills. It bears witness to the know-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamians as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence.
 Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex
Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity and its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centres on the Silk Road. Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex consists of a series of interconnected, covered, brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for different functions. Tabriz and its Bazaar were already prosperous and famous in the 13th century, when the town, in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. The city lost its status as capital in the 16th century, but remained important as a commercial hub until the end of the 18th century, with the expansion of Ottoman power. It is one of the most complete examples of the traditional commercial and cultural system of Iran.
 Takht-e Soleyman
The archaeological site of Takht-e Soleyman, in north-western Iran, is situated in a valley set in a volcanic mountain region. The site includes the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Ilkhanid (Mongol) period (13th century) as well as a temple of the Sasanian period (6th and 7th centuries) dedicated to Anahita. The site has important symbolic significance. The designs of the fire temple, the palace and the general layout have strongly influenced the development of Islamic architecture.
 TchoghaZanbil
The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at TchoghaZanbil. Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site.
  World Heritage in Danger
Armed conflict and war, earthquakes and other natural disasters, pollution, poaching, uncontrolled urbanization and unchecked tourist development pose major problems to World Heritage sites. Dangers can be ‘ascertained’, referring to specific and proven imminent threats, or ‘potential’, when a property is faced with threats which could have negative effects on its World Heritage values.
Under the 1972 World Heritage Convention, the World Heritage Committee can inscribe on the List of World Heritage in Danger properties whose protection requires ‘major operationsand for which assistance has been requested’.
Inscribing a site on the List of World Heritage in Danger allows the World Heritage Committee to allocate immediate assistance from the World Heritage Fund to the endangered property. It also alerts the international community to these situations in the hope that it can join efforts to save these endangered sites. The listing of a site as World Heritage in Danger allows the conservation community to respond to specific preservation needs in an efficient manner. Indeed, the mere prospect of inscribing a site on this List often proves to be effective, and can incite rapid conservation action.
Inscription of a site on the List of World Heritage in Danger requires the World Heritage Committee to develop and adopt, in consultation with the State Party concerned, a programme for corrective measures, and subsequently to monitor the situation of the site. All efforts must be made to restore the site's values in order to enable its removal from the List of World Heritage in Danger as soon as possible.
If a site loses the characteristics which determined its inscription on the World Heritage List, the World Heritage Committee may decide to delete the property from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List. To date, this provision of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention has been applied twice.
 World Heritage in Danger in Iran
Iranian city of Bam:
The ancient Citadel and surrounding cultural landscape of the Iranian city of Bam, where 26,000 people lost their lives in the earthquake of December 2003, was simultaneously inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List and on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2004. Important international efforts are mobilized to salvage the cultural heritage of this devastated city.
 Properties submitted on the Tentative List (51)
Jame' (Congregational) Mosque of Esfahan (1997)
Covering approximately 2 hectares, the Jame' ('Atiq) Mosque of Esfahan constitutes the supreme living testimony of the evolution of Iranian architecture in the Islamic period from its origins to the present.
Historic ensemble of Qasr-e Shirin (1997)
This ensemble is located within a perimeter northeast of Qasr-e Shirin and includes such architectural and urban remains from the late Sassanid period and the early Islamic period as the palace of Khosrow (attributed to the Sassanid Chosroes II, AD 591-628), the ChaharQapu monument, remains of a stone tower known as Ban Qal'eh(from Sassanid period and the early Islamic period) and remains of a caravansary from the Safavid period
 Firuzabad Ensemble (1997)
The ensemble at Firuzabad comprises, within a 12 km diameter area, such archaeological sites as the City of Gur, the Palace of Ardashir (Atashkadeh), Qal'ehDokhtar fortress, bas reliefs from the time of Ardashir (the founder of the Sassanid dynasty), the Pahlavi inscription of Mehr-Nerse and Tangab Bridge. This ensemble embodies the political, historic, cultural and artistic developments of the early Sassanid period. The City of Gur covers a perfect circle 2 km in diameter, and 8 km away from it, the palace of Ardashir stands beside a pond on the bank of the western branch of TangabRiver (Firuzabad). The Qal'ehDokhtar fortress stands atop the mountain adjoining TangabRiver and the ensemble built 4 km away from the palace of Aldashir. At the foot of the Qal'ehDokhtar fortress the remains of a Sassanid bridge, and on its opposite body the bas-relief depicting the crowning of Ardashir, the Pahlavi Sassanid inscription of Mehr-Nerse, from the time of Yazdgerd II, and at a small distance, between the palace and the fortress, the bas-relief depicting the victory of Ardashir over Ataban V, the last Parthian king, are situated.
 Shush (1997)
Covering about 350 hectares, Susa constitutes one of the world's largest archaeological sites. It was formed on the bank of ShourRiver since the 4th millennium BC and has been uninterruptedly inhabited until the 8th century A.H. Along this period, it was the capital of the Elamites and subsequently the Achaemenians for some 2.800 years. Since about 150 years ago, first the French Archeological Mission and then Iranians archaeological teams have carried out excavations here, retrieving artifacts, buildings and objects from various periods, and, most importantly, knowledge about Elamite history and culture.
Comparable to many archaeological sites in Iran, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, the Indus Valley, and central Asia ...
Nasqsh-e Rostam and Naqsh-e Rajab (1997)
An ensemble of historic, religious and artistic works from the Achaemenian and Sasanian periods located within a small perimeter near the monuments of Persepolis and those of the pre-Sasanian city of Estakhr, between which flows the PolvarRiver. 1. Naqsh-e Rajab, at the foot of Mt.Hossein, where Elamite remains are to be found, an important funerary ensemble of Achaemenian kings, particularly the graves of Darius I and Xerxes, exists. Their facades bear Achaemenian bas-reliefs and 6 important bas-reliefs from the first half of the Sasanian period are visible below them. 2. Naqsh-e Rajab: several hundred meters away from the remains of the city of Estakhr, four bas-relief panels from the early Sasanian period exist within a small ensemble.
 Tape Sialk (1997)
Tape Sialk consists of two mounds known as Northern and Southern Sialk, located about 600 meters apart. The artifacts of the northern mounds are more ancient than those of the southern. Relics of two cultural periods, from the beginning of settlement in villages in the Near East to the end of this period, and those of three cultural periods, beginning from the onset of settlement in cities, exist here. At the end of the second period, for unknown reasons, the inhabitants of Sialk moved to the southern mound and settled there. They used a type of script known as proto-Elamite, whose signs combined pictograms and numerals (3200 BC). In view of their use of gray ceramic ware, the last inhabitants of Sialk buried their dead in two graveyards named A and B. Sialk was eventually abandoned at the end of the Iron Age, before the advent of the Medes.
Susa (2007)
Covering about 350 hectares, Susa constitutes one of the world‘s largest archaeological sites. It has been located at the fountainhead of the city river. Since the 4th millennium BC people have uninterruptedly lived there until the 8th century AH. Along this period, it was the capital of the Elamites and subsequently the Achaemenian for totally about 2800 years. For the first time, a French archaeologist worked there about 150 years ago. Subsequently, Iranian Archaeological teams have carried out excavations here, unearthing artifacts, buildings and objects from different historical periods, and most importantly about Elamite history and culture.
The Ensemble of Historical Sassanid Cities in Fars Province (Bishabpur, Firouzabad, Sarvestan) (2007)
The ensemble of historical Sassanid cities in Fars Province contains the cities of Bishabpur, Firouzabad and Sarvestan which embodies the political, historical, cultural and artistic developments of the Sassanid period. This ensemble consist of the city of Gur, the place of Ardeshir, Qal'eh-e Dokhtar Fortress and finally some bas-reliefs.
Takht-e soleyman, naqsh-e Rostam, Naqsh-e Rajab and Darabgerd.
Taq-e Bostan (2007)
This complex consists of a series of properties from prehistoric to historical periods such as Morad-Hassel Tepe, an ancient village, a Parthian graveyard and a Sassanid hunting ground. The most significant property of the complex belongs to the Sassanid one which comprises of two porticos (large and small Ivans) as well as outstanding bas-reliefs from the same period.
It is an incomparable site in terms of the number of bas-reliefs and the historical, political, religious, social, artistic values involved, but comparable with some works in Naqsh-e Rostam, Naqsh-e Rajab, ChoganTepe and Firouzabad.
The Complex of Handmade Settlements in Iran (Maymand Village) (2007)
This village shows the way of continuous life of human beings through the history; those who utilized at most the existing natural facilities and harmonized with the surrounding nature.Comparison with other similar properties in Iran: Villages of Kandovan, HilleVar, Sour, Ghorveh, Vind, Tamin, Kharg Zoroastrian hypogea, Zorosterian houses around Tabas, Jahlkhaneh in Bushehr, Kapadocia, Metra, some regions in south of England, Jordan and China.
 Kuh-e Khuaja (2007)
Covering over 5 hectares atop Kuh-e Khuaja near Zabol, stands as one of the most important Iranian historic city-fortresses and an important unfired (place) brick ensemble of pre-Islamic and early Islamic Iran in the region. It includes remains from the Parthian, Sassanid and the early Islamic periods which feature outstanding architectural decoration (frescoes and stucco carvings). Historically and artistically, this site bears quasi-religious value.
Similar properties: The Citadel of Bam and the fortress of Bampur.
 Persepolis and other relevant buildings (2007)
Persepolis is one of the three properties included in the World Heritage List in 1979, belonging to the Achaemenid dynasty and is the most complete architectural form and city planning of this period. This property had been not only a political center but also a religious one. Moreover, the existence of the sacred mount of Mehr (Rahmat) in the neighborhood of Persepolis has been religiously paid attention to from the pre-historic to the present time. It has been recently known that this mount as well as the Royal mausoleums in Naghsh-e Rajab and the city of Estakhr have been both the entry gate of the city of Parsa and the portal of the water supply system. The above-mentioned properties and other relevant buildings created an integrated structure that with disregarding them, Persepolis cannot be defined completely. This ensemble has been regarded as the heart of the Iranian civilization in that period. The Iranian identity is still known and integrated with this ensemble. Some of the creative elements of architecture and city planning of the Achaemenid can be seen today. At the moment, only the Persepolis platform has been included in the World Heritage List and it needs that the entire ensemble to be included in the List in order complete the whole concept of the property.
In comparison with other prominent Achaemenid properties such as Susa, This ensemble enjoys a unique cohesion and authenticity.
The Historical–Cultural Axis of Fin, Sialk, Kashan (2007)
Soleymanieh Spring in Fin (Kashan) is the origin of life in this region and generated civilizations like Sialk that belong to 6th millennium BC and other instances onward. This spring generated Garden of Fin, the most prominent Iranian garden. The historical region of Kashan is an especial example of civilization from early Islamic period onward. This region contains several properties like mosques, bazaar, tekyehes (a place where Shiite Moslems mourn the martyrdom of an Imam), houses and industrial units.
SialkTepe can be compared with Uzbek Tepe and ShahdadTepe. The historical city of Kashan can be compared with Yazd, Natanz and Ardakan. Garden of Fin can be compared with most of Iranian gardens like Shazdeh Mahan and HashtBehesht in the city of Isfahan.
Historical Ensemble of Qasr-e Shirin (2007)
This ensemble is located within a perimeter northeast of Qasr-e Shirin and includes such architectural and urban remains from the late Sassanid period and the early Islamic period as the palace of Khosrow (attributed to the Sassanid Chosroes II, AD 591-628), the ChaharQapu monument, remains of a stone tower known as Ban Qal'eh(from Sassanid period and the early Islamic period) and remains of a caravansary from the Safavid period.
Firuzabad Ensemble, Qal'ehYazdgerd and Sarvestan.
Historic Monument of Kangavar (2007)
A monument known as the Temple of Anahita built on a rock platform overlooking the plain of Kangavar. This is a huge building measuring 220m×212m. The monument has a two-sided stairway on its southern front and a one-sided stairway at its northeastern corner. Historical sources and archaeological evidence attribute this monument to the Achaemenid period until the Islamic period.
Similar properties: Takht-e Madar-e Soleyman at Pasargadae, the famous monument of Anahita in Bishabur, Takht-e Neshin in Firuzabad and Takht-e Soleyman.
The Historical Structure of Yazd (2007)
The historical structure of Yazd is a collection of public-religious architecture in a very large scope comprising of different Islamic architectural elements of different periods in a harmonious combination with climatic conditions.
Similar properties: Tunis Historical City, Jordan, Sana'a in Yemen, Bukhara historical city and etc.
The Historical City of Maybod (2007)
It is a remarkable example of viability and transmission of human being's collective thoughts from different generations to the present one. What is significant in the city of Maybod is the regularity in city planning. The anatomy and spatial structure of the city shows original plans which conform with the old Iranian city planning.
Similar properties: Bam, Damghan, Kerman, Yazd, Medina, Tunis, Sana'a and Frara.
The Historical Port of Siraf (2007)
The historical Port of Siraf is the most important port of Iran from Sassanid period to the 4th century Hegira and there exist a large number of its properties. It proves the Iranians' master ship and genius in seafaring, international relations and interaction with other near and far cultures and civilizations.
The historical port of Siraf can be compared with Bishabur and its mosques comparable early Islamic mosques as well as the ancient cemetery of Shafab, hypogea comparable with hypogea in Karg Island.
Bazaar of Qaisariye in Laar (2007)
Laar is a sample of an urban planning belonging to pre-Safavid dynasty. Continuity of Bazaar of Qaisariye after the historical Earthquake Event and its planning and expansion and construction of a Square with polo gate and surrounding porticos shows a unique complex of urbanization from post-earthquake period.
From planning viewpoint, it can be compared with Bazaar Vakil in Shiraz and Bazaar of Qaisariye in Isfahan. From the-materials-used viewpoint as well as anatomic and static viewpoints, it is comparable with its contemporary buildings.
The Historical Village of Abyaneh (2007)
Village of Abyaneh is one of the Iranian historical villages that contains some works from Sassanid period to the present time. It owns several unequal attributions just like the unique temple of "Herpak", a Chief mosque with a unique mihrab from Seljukian period, houses harmonious with climate and mountainous land. One can see Sassanid Pahlavic words in daily conversation as well as villagers' clothing that is rooted in earlier times.
Inside Iran, it may merely be compared with the Village of Masouleh. Both villages are multi-leveled and constructed by local materials but Abyaneh has kept its architecture, ceremonies and culture, language, clothing and etc.
 Bastam and Kharghan (2007)
This assemblage comprises the complex of Sheikh BayazidBastami, the Chief Mosque, the towered dome of Kashaneh and a part of old wall of the city. The complex of Sheikh BayazidBastami comprises the grave of Sheikh BayazidBastami, one of the five elevated Sufis of the world. For the same reason, from 19th century onward, several important properties have been constructed around it. The oldest property of the complex dates back to 8th and 9th centuries AD.
The complex of Sheikh BayazidBastami can be compared with other religious complexes in the Islamic world but its remarkable issue is that it has had a regular trend of development through one thousand year.
 The Historical Texture of Damghan (2007)
This hill belongs to Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods of HesarTepe. It is one of the most famous prehistoric sites of Middle East. In Parthian period, the capital has been transported to Ghoumes in west of Damghan. In the first Islamic century, Damghan reached its peak. It is very hard to find such a place comprising of fateful works in a region with a small area including Mosque (Tarikhaneh) of Damghan, Tower of Alamdar, the Complex of ImamzadehJa'far and the city wall that still exist.
The city itself cannot be incomparable but its properties can be compared with other one all around the world for example HesarTepe with SialkTepe in Kashan and or Mesopotamian properties; Tarikhaneh with the first mosques in Mesopotamia; towered domes with Central Asian and Anatolian ones.
The Cultural-Natural Landscape of Ramsar (2007)
The cultural-natural axis of Ramsar has been stretched from the northern foothills of Alborz Mountains to the shores of Caspian Sea and includes e.g. Ramsar Hotel, thirty -acre Garden, Pahlavi I palace and garden, the main boulevard that ends to (former) Ramsar Casino. It shows the city planning of one century ago that was integrated with nature.
It can be compared with some properties in 19th century and early days of 20th century in the cities of Orutha near to fountainheads of spas.
Kaboud Mosque (2007)
This mosque is one of the precious works of Islamic period (the Timurids) and is known as turquoise of Islam as it has been built of turquoise-colored bricks. It is one of the most beautiful buildings of Timurid period. Geographically, it has been located in a cold climatic condition, and for the same reason, it has no quadrangle. The remainder consists of a tomb and a mosque that its dome is double layered.
Decoratively it can be compared with Timurid works in Herat, Samarqand and Khorasan and from plan viewpoint it is comparable with Osmanli buildings especially with great mosques of Orhan and Yeshil in Bursa.
Tous Cultural Landscape (2007)
Tous is one of the places that owns the oldest findings of human being's life and is considered today as the biggest ancient religious city of the world. This city has witnessed different civilizations (cultural sequence). Tous is the hometown of many Iranian cultivated persons.
It can be compared with the historical city of Zawzan, historical city of Bawzjan and other Islamic-period cities from 2nd to 7th centuries Hegira.
The Historical City of Masouleh (2007)
This city has an age of eight hundred to a thousand years. The existence of numerous graveyards inner and outside of the city proves its old texture. Storied and terracing plan of the city is in parallel to the mountain slope. The combination of such architecture with natural landscapes can be a national and international touristy center and the only way of the inhabitants' living. As the all people could directly see the main façade of houses, the local artists and artisans did their best in this part of building.
Similar properties: Uranamat, Abyaneh, Proush in France and...
The Complex of Izadkhast (2007)
This historical complex has been situated on a natural base along with unique characteristics. The complex contains the castle of Izadkhast, one caravanserai and the Safavid-period Bridge. The works inside of the castle belong to different periods from Sassanids to Qajars. The most important section of the complex is the castle that has been built on singular bedrock in a sand construction and close to the valley of Izadkhast. The bedrock has protected the castle from the foreigners' attacks. A bridge and a gate in the most accessible part of the complex made it possible to connect with the surrounding areas. The smallness of the rock led to agglomeration of built rooms. Hence, the smallness of rooms resulted in increase of floors.
It is, in form of construction, unique but can be, from the-materials-used point of view, compared with Citadel of Bam, Rhine and many other citadels, castles built in provinces of Yazd and Kerman. The complex caravanserai can be compared with Safavid caravanserais especially the caravanserais in Esfahan-Shiraz Route.
Cultural Landscape of Alamout (2007)
Hassan Sabah's castle has been located in north-eastern side of Gazor Khan Village in the environs of Mo'alemKalayeh, from the environs of Roudbar of Alamout. The relics of castle stand on the cliff of Kanglou-Marazi along with valleys and horrible precipices. The height of this cliff is 220 meters and 2163 meters above the sea level. It is located on the southwestern foothills of Houdkan Mountains, of Alborz Moutains. According to Ata MalakJoveyni, the 7th century historian, this tall cliff from the north-eastern side is like a sleeping camel. According to Frya Stark, its upper side looks like a ship that its nose has been extended north-westerly. The relics of walls, towers and lookout posts have been made of stones with gypsum as binding material. The castle is ten thousand square meter in area. The requisite buildings have been constructed on different levels of the steep cliff. All levels and steep places have been optimally utilized.
Hassan Sabah's castle in Alamout and comparable with palace of caliphs in Baghdad; Chief Mosque of Isfahan; Tower of Khaghan; Chief Mosque of Ghazvin.
Qanats of Gonabad (2007)
The property contains of 427 water wells with a length of 33113 meters and has been constructed based on different sciences like physics, geology and hydraulics and made it possible for the inhabitants to live in such a dry land that it rains there scarcely.
Similar properties: Qanats of Uroune, Moun, Chahak and Shirin.
Zozan (2007)
The historical city of Zozan is located at a distance of 41 kilometres to the historical city of Khargard and is like a rectangular. Its ancient castle stands in the southern side and the chief mosque- belonging to Khwarazmi period with two-balconied plan- stands in the western side of the city.
Some of the works of Zozan e.g. the Chief Mosque can be compared with some early-Islamic works like Mosque of Gonbad in Bacteria ad or two-balconied mosque in Khorasan and some other works like ghanats can be compared with ghanat of Bam. Its irrigation systems in the form of dams, in the present scale are unique. If Khaegard and Gonabad are regarded in the same file, a unique school and a great mosque will be added either.
Khorramabad Valley (2007)
This valley has been situated in the central heights of Luristan and at heart of limy mounts. Because of abundant water reservoirs and different types of plants and animals, suitable weather and natural defence facilities among Zagros Mountains as well as its special situation as a passage, it has had a great importance through history and has been the origin of life for 40000 years in this region. It is of few Zagros natural passages possessing civilization earlier than the two sides of Zagros Mountains. This valley comprises of at least 20 pre-historic properties such as caves, shelters and ancient sites as well as 20 ancient Tepes and 15 historical properties.
Incomparable site in terms of the number of bas-reliefs and the historic, political, religious, sociable, artistic values involved, but comparable with similar works in Naqsh-e Rostam, Naqsh-e Raja, Tap-e Chugan and Firuzabad,in Fars Province.
Jiroft (2007)
It functions as a communicative, cultural, commercial exchange center contacting with neighbouring cultures and resembles Anatolia in Caucasus, the Great Khorasan and Mesopotamia
Architectural complexes and excavated properties from Bronze Age comparable with Shahdad, HesarTepe in Damghan, Shahr-e Soukhteh, Fars Province, Susa, Marv, AltinTepe and etc;
The historical period properties comparable with: Nesa, Azerbaijan, Damavand, Susa, India, Greece;
The Islamic period properties comparable with: Neyshabour, Jorjan, Samerah [in Iraq], Susa, southern shores of Amman.
 Ghaznavi- Seljukian Axis in Khorasan (2007)
There exist numerous caravanserais in Silk Route from Seljukian period including Robat-Sharaf, Robat-Mahi, and historical complex of Sang-bast, Baba Loghman Building and other constructions. These properties prove the significance of the Route in the Great Khorasan and the present Khorasan.
The complex of Sang-Bast and the method of its construction as well as the bas-relief of the dome can be compared with the original dome of Imam Reza Shrine The architecture, decorative brickworks of the arches of exterior bodies and generally the overall architectural appearance of Baba Loghman Building can be compared with tomb of Sheik Abolkheyr in Turkmenistan.
Robat-Mahi and Robat-Sharaf can be compared with Seljukian properties including the Chief Mosque of Isfahan, Tower of Sareban as well as towers of Bastam, Semnan, Damghan, Firouzabad in Sabzevar and Saveh.
The Cultural Landscape of Uramanat (2007)
Uramanat Village owns a unique rural texture, architecture, lifestyle and agriculture. And as a prominent example of integration of man into the nature, the inhabitants integrated themselves into the nature through utilization of sharp slopes in agriculture.
Similar properties: Utilization of very sharp slopes for agriculture has been seen in Japan and China. There exists a lot of soil over there but scarcely in Uramanat.
Hyrcanian Forest (Caspian Forest) (2007)
Hyrcanian forest granted the areas with unique richness of biological diversity, its endemic and endangered species, its natural beauty and its masterpieces of nature creative genius in the form of this ancient forest. North of Iran as along band has diverse natural, economic and social conditions. It characterized by various ecological conditions from 550 to 2200mm precipitation, zero to 5671 m elevation and various vegetation landscape from conifers to broadleaved to Mediterranean plants. These conditions caused great diversity in species. It due to its diverse ecological condition is rich in relict species that some of them referred to the Tertiary period.
 Hyrcanian forest contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. It also contains superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. It is outstanding examples in the record of significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms and significant geomorphic or physiographic features. It is also outstanding example representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, ecosystems and communities of plants.
Along with climate, geology, and topography, which are primary factors that determine plant distribution, similarities between the floras of Hyrcanian Forests, Middle European deciduous broadleaved forests and western North America deciduous broadleaved forests are increased by historical biogeography. Hyrcanian Forest contains remnants (refuge) of the broad leaf forests that once covered most of the North Temperate Zone 25 - 50 million years ago, in the early Cenozoic Era. As the climate and land forms changed, this forest disappeared from most of its former range, being replaced by shrub lands, grasslands, and woodlands. During the Pleistocene ("Ice Ages"), glaciations had minimal impact on Hyrcanian Forest. Instead of the massive ice sheets that covered much of north-eastern America, glaciers were largely restricted to high elevations in western North America.
When the Europe covered by ice during the Pleistocene, Hyrcanian Forest were alive and at the end of frozen, plant species of Hyrcanian forests immigrated to Europe and these forests is mother of European forests. There are little similarities in the physiognomic and taxonomic aspects between Hyrcanian forests and European and American deciduous forests. Fertile soil, suitable precipitation and temperate climate causes that  some species such as "Fagus orientalis", "Quercuscastaneifolia", "Alnusglotinosa" and "Aecrvelotinum" can reach 50 meter height and 3 meter diameter at breast height but they have maximum about 25 meter height and 1 meter diameter at breast height in Europe. The Caspian forest areas are among the most unique and splendid biomes of the world. The Caspian forests have high moisture content, so forest trees are host to many epiphytes such as mosses, ferns, lichens, mistletoes and some flowering plants. Soils are productive and rich in minerals and organic matter. There are many well-known and unique communities in these forests, the most important ones being:
Hyrcanian forest, Iran, Azerbaijan
Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area,China
Canaima National Park, Venezuela
GunungMulu, Malaysia
Central Sikhote-Alin, Russia
Redwood National Park, USA
Grand Canyon National Park, USA
Carlsbad Caverns National Park, USA
Ha Long Bay, Viet Nam
Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia
 Qeshm Island (2007)
Qeshm is the biggest island in the Persian Gulf near the straits of Hormoz. It is stretched closely along sides the south coastline (Hormozgan) of the Iranian mainland. The highest elevation is the 370 m in Bukhunmt. Also there is the gas and oiles in the center of the island. The length of island is 130 km and the widest part is 11- 35 km between Tabl and Salakh. The number of species and communities are 370 and 67 respectively. The Harra protected area, one of the biggest Harra habitat in Iran, is situated in this island.
The Qeshm is the biggest island in the Hormoz strait. Also the island is very important in view of speciation in long time. Due to human activities in this area, flora and vegetation should be preserved. Another importance of the island is Ghar- e Kharbas as a historical place.
There is not similar area in Iran or in the world.
Lut Desert (the vicinity of Shahdad) (2007)
The big desert of Lut with the area of 5400 km2 is situated in the east and southeast of Iran .In a major part of this desert, there is no animal and vegetable life of any kind. The very beautiful and typical phenomena abound in this desert. This desert has a few universally unique specifications. Due to its vastness only a part of this area (in the vicinity of the historical city of Shahdad), that includes the most of its phenomena is taken in to consideration.
Lut enjoys 3 probably 4 universal records:
The longest widespread system of Yardangs in the world (120 km long in 80 km wide).
The tallest sand pyramid of the world (nearly 500 M high)
The hottest point of the world (based on the studies on the satellite images and data).
The biggest bekas in the world (most probably)
 Arasbaran Protected Area (2007)
Arasbaran Protected is the 9th Biosphere Reserved in Iran which covers an area of 78560 hectares with a circumference of 134 km. The altitude varies from ca. 256 m in the northern part to 2896 m which is the highest elevation in southern part of the area. Due to the importance of the area in having a rich flora (about 1000 taxa) and fauna specially presence of rare species such as Lyurusmlokosiewiczi in 1971 was conserved and UNESCO was listed it as a wildlife refuge since 1976.
There is not similar area in Iran.
Sabalan (2007)
Sabalan Mount a latentvolcano with the altitude of 4820 m, is Iran's third highest peak. This mountain that includes a collection of volcanic features as well as wonderful natural scenes is one of the invaluable natural properties of Iran. At the peak there's a crater lake of sweet water that is one of the highest sweet water lakes the world.
The long diameter, the existence of the wonderful erosion valley in the highest altitude sweet water lakes of the world being local in the mountain are among the unique specification of the mountain.
Khabr National Park and Ruchun Wildlife Refuge (2007)
Khabr Nation Park and Ruchun wild life refuge covers an area of 169200 hectares. Khabr is eleventh National Park of Iran which alone covers an area about 120000 hectares. The lowest elevation is 1000 and the highest 3845 m. The area has a rich flora (about 750 species) and about 120 endemic species. In view of phytogeography, the area situated between Irano-Turanian and Sahara-Sindian regions which includes several communities and various vegetation. 
There is not similar area in Iran.
Alisadr cave has too many water halls and wide variety of beautiful features such as stalactites, stalagmites and carst deposits with various forms. This with about 2400 M in cave boating is the biggest cave in the world from this respect. This cave has a lasting exploitation and protection management system.
The longest and the biggest water cave in the world (from the point of the boating course inside the cave).
Silk Route (Also as Silk Road) (2008)
The Silk Route is a corridor that is stretched mainly east to west and has connected all Asian and European civilizations to each other. It can play an important role at the present time. Here, the part which is located in the political geography of Iran is nominated for inscription in the World Heritage List (Tentative List).
The Silk Route is the longest route all around the globe. This corridor has connected four civilizations and according to archaeological findings, the prehistoric human beings resided around most of its spots.
The Natural-Historical Landscape of Izeh (2008)
This cultural-natural-historical site encompasses Ashkoft Salman, Koul Farah, KhoungAzhdar and many other properties dating back to 1300 to 700 years ago. In the rock paintings, the figures have been painted one after another in a way that they make a background for the perspective. It is the first time that women have been painted together with men in Iranian paintings.
Similar properties: the rock carving of Anubanini in Sar-e Pol Zahaab
The Zandiyeh Ensemble of Fars Province (2008)
The Ensemble of Karim Khani Buildings is considered as the fundamental structure of the old Shiraz from Zandiyeh up to the present time. As it has been constructed in different periods or one can see a footprint of urban elements from each period, it is ofparamount importance. Hence, it can be recognized as one of the comprehensive models of Iranian current architecture.
Safavid Ensemble in Isfahan.
Kerman Historical-Cultural Structure (2008)
One of the most important reasons for establishment of Kerman City is its location as a cross road. From long long ago, this city has been one of the important locations that connect West to East and North to South.
Such a specification has had a remarkable influence on construction and development of bazaar, in a way that the commercial zones of the city have been expanded to the outskirts of Kerman. As a result, the commercial axis and city plan have been designed based on the main commercial lines. The south-north line begins from Old Bazaar (Bazaar Kohneh) to Bazaar Aziz i.e. starting from Rigabad Gate to the surroundings of Gabri Gate and the east-west line of Kerman Bazaar that begins from Mosque gate and ends to Arg Square. Such a plan proves its important role and makes the architectural plan of the commercial axis as a cross-shaped intersection which led to be one of the most beautiful Iranian bazaars. Additionally, it provides the most accessibility between the bazaar and the old quarters of the city.
There exist a lot of ancient fortresses all around the country .Although these fortresses share some common features, they are considered unique. If there was a market in cities with ancient fortresses the remains is not considerable. Concerning the above-mentioned feature Kerman fortresses are unique (Ardeshir and Doghtar fortresses and Chalipaie Bazar along with them).
In this section, Kerman fortresses and Bazar will be compared with similar ones in the country.
1) There exist some similarities between Narin fortresses of Meibod and Naiten with Kermani's. Concerning its architectural features Meibod fortress dates back to Median era, and apparently later on it was of concern again and reconstructed in form of a Sasanid city. This sun-dried brick fortress accommodated some people till the fall of Mozaffars Family Dynasty. Ordered by Amir Goorkani, some parts of the city were pulled down. This fortress like the Kermani's was located within a city, but constructing a couple next together was peculiar to Kerman. In Kerman, though, there was one (Dokhtar Fortress), a new one was built on the neighbouring hill.
2) Dokhtar fortress in Firrozabad of Fars is a masterpiece of Sassanid: This fortified fortress was built by Ardeshir. Constructing this (like Bishapoor fortress) rubble stones and Sassanid mortar were used as construction materials. The Fortress was built on slope of the mount. As these were deserted they could sustain their primary architectural features during the time. As these two fortresses have been reconstructed over the time, there can be found some valuable remains of Partians' sun-dried bricks as well as added fortifications during Saljooghi, Ilkhani and Ghajar eras. All these tougher made a precious collection out of these bricks and arches.
3) Enjoying four historical peculiar Bazaars, Kerman is considered a unique place in Iran and among Arabic countries. (Ganj-Ali Khan, Ebrahim Khan, Vakil and Haj Agha Ali).
4) Kerman Bazaar is the only one in its kind that enjoys a square (Ganj-Ali Khan square which is not roofed) at a crossing of two straight roofed bazaars and a part of this Bazaar is turning around this square. In most cases the Bazaar entrances are from this square. Kerman is the only city that is benefited with a square within the market as well as a main entrance from Arg Square among the cities of dried and hot area.
5) Small mosque of Ganj-Ali Khan within Kerman Bazaar is like a museum of ornamental arts. Ganj-Ali Khan Bath is also the most beautiful of its kind in Iran.
6) Crossing shape of Kerman Bazaar is a combination of organic and non-organic elements. Lar also has got a crossing shape Bazaar, but only Kerman is designed completely.
7) Kerman Bazaar has eastern and western wings (one of the biggest ones in Iran).
8) Ganj-Ali Khan Chahar Sough (a dome made of four acute angle domes) with twenty meters of height is one of the tallest among Iranian Bazaars and enjoys peculiar ornaments.
 
Hegmataneh (2008)
Hegmataneh is universally well known because Median Dynasty was established over there. After Medes, this city was the capital of Achaemenid as well. In the following periods- Selukis, Parthians, Sassanid and Islamic dynasties- was also very famous.
There exists no comparable instance.
The Collection of Historical Bridges (2008)
Iran due to its climatic diversity and great number of mounts enjoys a lot of small and big rivers that cover the whole country. A lot of huge bridges over these made the necessary connections to ease doing the business, going on pilgrimage, exchanging of art and culture sightseeing and even paving the way for invaders.
Among Iran ancient roads Shahi with a considerable number of bridges like KhodaAfarin, Pol-e Dokhtar and Gavmishan. Establishing of Sassanid dynasty made the way for flourishing of bridge construction engineering in the area like Shapouri of Khorram Abad, Shapouri of Kakareza, Shapouri of Aleshtar, Kashkan, Kalhor, Pol-e Dokhtar, Gavmishan, Kasian, Siahplleh, Zal and Poletang.
Following that in fourth century (Lunar calendar) simultaneous to Badrin of Hasanvieh huge bridges were constructed and rebuilt (like Kalhor, Pol-e Dokhtar and Gavmishan).
Lorestan big historical bridges for instance Kalhore, Pol-e Dokhtar and Gavmishan) concerning the measure, size, shape and architecturalfeatures are unique in Iran, Asia and even the whole world.
Touran Biosphere Reserve (2008)
Touran Biosphere Reserve covers area 1,464,992 hectares. The Reserve presents a variety of habitats, including three extensive plains at different altitudes, varying from 700 to 1400 square meters, a saline river system, three mountain systems rising to a maximum of 2200 meters and 200000 hectares of sand including moving dunes, and a vast expanse of barren playa. This area was first established as a Protected Region in 1976, but because of importance of the area in having a high endemic plant species and large mammals especially presence of Acinonyxjubatus, Pantherapardus, Feliscatus, F. margarita, Gazellasubgutturosa, G. dorcas and Equushemionus was listed as a Biosphere Reserve by Man and Biosphere Program (MAB) since 1977.
IRan does not have an area with similar features.
Hamoun Lake (2008)
This is an eastern desert lake. It is of three zones: Hamoun- Hirmand in south and south western part, Hamoun-e- Sabereen in northwestern part and Hamoun-e-Pouzak in northeastern of Sistan Plain. In seasons of high precipitation the area of lake is about 5700 km2. 3800 km2 of its area is within Iranian territory and the rest is located in Afghanistan.
Enjoying great variety of environmental features as well as flora and fauna it's a great inhabitant for all creatures and especially peregrine birds and due to these it has been registered as the first Iranian pond.
Harra Protected Area (2008)
The reserve located in strait of Khuran, Persian Gulf; between Qeshm Island and the southern Iranian coasts. Much of reserve is taken up by Mehran delta which forms extensive Intertidal flats and has a marshy coastline and vast mangrove formation. There are numerous small islands, creeks and inlets. The climate is subtropical and summers are extremely hot with temperatures reaching 4j0c, rainfall is low with an annual total of 100- 300 mm, mainly falling November to April. The reserve contains the stand of grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) that named Harra in locally. This stand is largest one in all over the Persian Gulf countries. This area is of major importance to breeding, wintering and migrant water birds. The main area of mangroves and mudflats with an area of 82,360 hectares was designated as a protected area in 1972. The entire area of mangroves, mudflats and creels was designated as Ramsar Site on 1975 as well as a biosphere reserve in 1976.
The reserve has regional importance in Persian Gulf area for bio-geographic importance, vast of terrestrial, shore and sea areas, uniqueness and rarity, critical habitat for fish stock and endangered species, biotic structure systems, high diversity, representativeness, physiognomy feature, natural characteristics, productivity, spawning, breeding and nursery grounds, integrity or self-sustaining ecological entity, economic importance for local people and human population dependency, recreational, educational and research importance.
Damavand (2008)
Mount Damavand is the highest elevation about 5610m in Iran. It is an inactive volcanic mountain which was activated in Quaternary Period. It has numerous thermal springs. The peak of Damavand covers permanently snow during the entire year. The most important thermal springs are Ask and Larijan. The Flora and Fauna is very rich and include about 2000 plant species. There are numerous endemic species which are important to Flora of world.
Mount Damavand is one of the unique volcanic mountains including of special rich Flora andplant communities in Iran and of the world.


“ UNESCO Wold Heritages in Iran ”